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高二英语人教新课标选修6 unit 1 Art课文翻译

时间:2012-02-24 20:59  作者:admin  来源:www.2abc8.com

  高二人教新课标选修6 unit 1 Art课文翻译

  Reading 1

  A SHORT HISTORY OF WESTERN PAINTING

  Art is influenced by the customs and faith of a people. Styles in Western art have changed many times. As there are so many different styles of Western art, it would be impossible to describe all of them in such a short text. Consequently, this text will describe only the most important ones, starting from the sixth century AD.

  The Middle Ages (5th to the 15th century AD)

  During the Middle Ages, the main aim of painters was to represent religious themes. A conventional artist of this period was not interested in showing nature and people as they really were. A typical picture at this time was full of religious symbols, which created a feeling of respect and love for God. But it was evident that ideas were changing in the 13th century when painters like Giotto di Bondone began to paint religious scenes in a more realistic waywww.2abc8.com.

  The Renaissance (15th to 16th century)

  During the Renaissance, new ideas and values gradually replaced those held in the Middle Ages. People began to concentrate less on religious themes and adopt a more humanistic attitude to life. At the same time painters returned to classical Roman and Greek ideas about art. They tried to paint people and nature as they really were. Rich people wanted to possess their own paintings, so they could decorate their superb palaces and great houses. They paid famous artists to paint pictures of themselves, their houses and possessions, as well as their activities and achievements.

  One of the most important discoveries during this period was how to draw things in perspective. This technique was first used by Masaccio in 1428. When people first saw his paintings, they were convinced that they were looking through a hole in the wall at a real scene. If the rules of perspective had not been discovered, no one would have been able to paint such realistic pictures. By coincidence, oil paints were also developed at this time, which made the colours used in paintings look richer and deeper. Without the new paints and the new technique, we would not be able to see the many great masterpieces for which this period is famouswww.2abc8.com.

  Impressionism (late 19th to early 20th century)

  In the late 19th century, Europe changed a great deal, from a mostly agricultural society to a mostly industrial one. Many people moved from the countryside to the new cities. There were many new inventions and social changes. Naturally, these changes also led to new painting styles. Among the painters who broke away from the traditional style of painting were the Impressionists, who lived and worked in Paris.

  The impressionists were the first painters to work outdoors. They were eager to show how light and shadow fell on objects at different times of day. However, because natural light changes so quickly, the Impressionists had to paint quickly. Their paintings were not as detailed as those of earlier painters. At first, many people disliked this style of painting and became very angry about it. They said that the painters were careless and their paintings were ridiculouswww.2abc8.com.

  Modern art (20th century to today)

  At the time they were created, the Impressionist paintings were controversial, but today they are accepted as the beginning of what we call "modern art". This is because the Impressionists encouraged artists to look at their environment in new ways. There are scores of modern art styles, but without the Impressionists, many of these painting styles might not exist. On the one hand, some modern art is abstract; that is, the painter does not attempt to paint objects as we see them with our eyes, but instead concentrates on certain qualities of the object, using colour, line and shape to represent them. On the other hand, some paintings of modern art are so realistic that they look like photographs. They styles are so different. Who can predict what painting styles there will be in the future?

  西方绘画艺术简史

  艺术是受着人民生活习俗和信仰的影响的。西方的艺术风格经历了多次变革。由于西方的艺术风格多 种多样,在短短的一篇课文里不可能进行全面的描述。因此,本文只谈及从公元6世纪以来最主要的几种艺术风格www.2abc8.com

  中世纪(公元5世纪到15世纪)

  在中世纪,画家的主要任务是把宗教的主题表现出来。一个传统的艺术家无意于如实地展现自然和人物。那个时期的典型的绘画充满了宗教的(象)特征,体现出了对土帝的爱戴与敬重。但是,很显然到了13世纪时,观念发生变化,像乔托这样的画家开始以一种比较现实的风格来画宗教场景www.2abc8.com

  文艺复兴时期( 15世纪到16世纪)

  在文艺复兴时期,新的思想和价值观逐渐取代了中世纪的思想和价值观。人们开始较少关注宗教主题 而采取一种更人性化的生活态度。同时画家们回到了罗马、希腊的古典艺术理念上。他们力争如实地画出 人物和自然。富人们想拥有自己的艺术品并用来装饰自己的高级宫殿和豪宅,他们出价聘请著名艺术家来 为自己画像,画自己的房屋和其他财物,以及他们的活动和成就。

  在此期间,最重要的发现之一就是如何用透视法来画出事物。这一手法是1428年由马萨乔第一次使 用的。当人们第一次看到他的画时,还以为是透过墙上的小洞来观看真实的场景,并对此深信不疑。如果 没有发现透视法,人们就不可能画出如此逼真的画。巧合的是这一时期油画颜料也得到了发展,它使得绘 画的色彩看上去更丰富、更深沉。没有新的颜料和新的(绘画)手法,我们就不能看到很多使这一时代著名的杰作。

  印象派时期( 19世纪后期到20世纪初期)www.2abc8.com

  19世纪后期,欧洲发生了巨大的变化,从以农业为主的社会变成了以工业为主的社会。许多人从农村 迁入到新城市。有着许多新发明,还有许多社会变革。这些变革也自然而然地促成了新的绘画风格。在那 些突破传统画法的画家中有生活和工作在法国巴黎的印象派画家www.2abc8.com

  印象派画家是第一批室外写景的画家。他们急切地想把一天中不同时间投射到物体上的光线和阴影呈 现出来。然而由于自然光的变化很快,印象派画家们必须很快地作画,因此,他们的画就不像以前那些画 家们的画那样细致了。起初,许多人都不喜欢这种画法,甚至还怒不可遏。他们说这些画家作画时漫不经 心、粗枝大叶,而他们的作品更是荒谬可笑。

  现代艺术(20世纪至今)

  在印象派作品的创建初期,它们是存在着争议的,但是如今己被人们接受而成为现在我们所说的"现 代艺术"的始祖了。这是因为印象派鼓励画家用一种崭新的视角看待他们的环境。如今,现代艺术风格有 好几十种,然而如果没有印象派,那么这许多不同的风格就不可能存在。一方面,有些现代艺术是抽象的, 也就是说,画家并不打算把我们眼睛看到的东西如实地画出来,而是集中展现物体的某些品质特性,用色 彩、线条和形状把它们呈现出来。而另一方面,有些现代派的艺术作品却是那么写实,看上去就像是照片。 这些风格如此不同。谁能预言将来会有什么样的绘画艺术风格?

 

Reading 2
  
THE BEST OF MANHATTAN'S ART GALLERIESwww.2abc8.com
The Frick Collection (5th Avenue and E.70th Street)
      Many art lovers would rather visit this small art gallery than any other in New York. Henry Clay Frick, a rich New Yorker, died in 1919, leaving his house, furniture and art collection to the American people. Frick had a preference for pre-twentieth century Western paintings, and these are well-represented in this excellent collection. You can also explore Frick's beautiful home and garden which are well worth a visit.
 Guggenheim Museum (5th Avenue and 88th Street)
      This museum owns 5,000 superb modern paintings, sculptures and drawings. These art works are not all displayed at the same time. The exhibition is always changing. It will appeal to those who love Impressionist and Post-Impressionist paintings. The Guggenheim Museum building is also world-famous. When you walk into the gallery, you feel as if you were inside a fragile, white seashell. The best way to see the paintings is to start from the top floor and walk down to the bottom. There are no stairs, just a circular path. The museum also has an excellent restaurant.
Metropolitan Museum of Art (5th Avenue and 82nd Street)www.2abc8.com
      The reputation of this museum lies in the variety of its art collection. This covers more than 5,000 years of civilization from many parts of the world, including America, Europe, China, Egypt, other African countries and South America. The museum displays more than just the visual delights of art. It introduces you to ancient ways of living. You can visit an Egyptian temple, a fragrant Ming garden, a typical room in an 18th century French house and many other special exhibitions.www.2abc8.com
Museum of Modern Art (53rd Street, between 5th and 6th Avenues)
      It is amazing that so many great works of art from the late 19th century to the 21st century are housed in the same museum. The collection of Western art includes paintings by such famous artists as Monet, Van Gogh, Picasso and Matisse. A few words of warning: the admission price is not cheap and the museum is often very crowded.
Whitney Museum of American Art (945 Madison Avenue, near 75th Street)
      The Whitney holds an excellent collection of contemporary American painting and sculpture. There are no permanent displays in this museum and exhibitions change all the time. Every two years, the Whitney holds a special exhibition of new art by living artists. The museum also shows videos and films by contemporary video artists.
曼哈顿艺术画廊荟萃www.2abc8.com
 
弗里克收藏馆(第5大道和第70街大道之间)
在纽约,比起其他艺术馆许多艺术爱好者都更乐意参观这家小型艺术陈列馆。亨利·克莱·弗里克是纽约的一位富豪,于1919年去世,把他的房子、家具和艺术收藏品全部留给了美国入民。弗里克对20世纪以前的西方绘画有偏爱,而在这个陈列馆的珍藏品里这些绘画得以很好展出。你还可以好好考察一下弗里克美丽的故居和花园,它们是很值得一看的。  
古根海姆博物馆(第5大道和第88街交汇处)www.2abc8.com
这家博物馆拥有5000幅非常好的现代油画、雕塑和素描。这些艺术品并不是同时展出的,展品总是在不断地更换。展览将吸引印象派和后印象派作品的爱好者。古根海姆博物馆的大楼也是世界闻名的。当你走进画廊的时候,你会觉得你进入了一个易碎的白色贝壳之中。看画展最好是从顶层看起, 一直往下看到底层。展厅里没有楼梯,只有一条环形的小道。博物馆里还有一家极好的餐馆。 
 大都会艺术博物馆(第5大道与第82街交汇处) www.2abc8.com
这家博物馆以收藏艺术品种类繁多而享有盛名。它的艺术品收藏涵盖了5000多年来世界上众多国家的文明史,其中包括美洲、欧洲、中国、埃及、其他非洲国家和南美洲。这家博物馆展出的不只是可以看得见的艺术之美,它还向你介绍了古代的生活方式。你可以看到埃及的寺庙,馥郁的明朝花园, 18世纪法国住宅中的典型房间,以及许多其他特殊展品。 www.2abc8.com  
现代艺术博物馆(第53街,位于第5和第6大道之间) 
令人惊奇的是,在同一家博物馆里竟能容纳下19世纪后期到21世纪的如此众多的名家巨作。西方艺术的收藏包括有莫奈、凡高、毕加索和马蒂斯等著名艺术家的作品。有几句话需要提醒你注意:博物馆票价不菲,而且常常十分拥挤。www.2abc8.com   
 
惠特尼美国艺术博物馆(麦迪逊大道945号,靠近第75街) www.2abc8.com

惠特尼博物馆藏有极好的当代美国绘画和雕塑品。馆内没有永久性的展出,展品都是随时更换的。惠特尼博物馆每两年有一次特殊的展览,展品是仍然在世的艺术家们的新作。这家博物馆还展出当代影视艺术家的录像和电影作品。

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