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Big Ben英国大本钟英文介绍名字的由来

时间:2011-08-05 15:16  作者:admin  来源:www.2abc8.com

Big Ben is the nickname for the great bell of the clock at the north end of the Palace of Westminster in London, and is generally extended to refer to the clock or the clock tower as well. This extension is technically incorrect, but its usage is now entirely commonplace. It is the largest four-faced chiming clock and the third-tallest free-standing clock tower in the world.It celebrated its 150th anniversary in May 2009, during which celebratory events took place. The clock was finished being built on 10 April 1858. The clock tower has become one of the most prominent symbols of both London and England, often in the establishing shot of films set in the city.

The present tower was raised as a part of Charles Barry's design for a new palace, after the old Palace of Westminster was largely destroyed by fire on the night of 16 October 1834. The new Parliament was built in a Neo-gothic style. Although Barry was the chief architect of the Palace, he turned to Augustus Pugin for the design of the clock tower, which resembles earlier Pugin designs, including one for Scarisbrick Hall. The design for the Clock Tower was Pugin's last design before his final descent into madness and death, and Pugin himself wrote, at the time of Barry's last visit to him to collect the drawings: "I never worked so hard in my life for Mr Barry for tomorrow I render all the designs for finishing his bell tower & it is beautiful." The tower is designed in Pugin's celebrated Gothic Revival style, and is 96.3 metres (316 ft) high (roughly 16 stories).

The bottom 61 metres (200 ft) of the Clock Tower's structure consists of brickwork with sand coloured Anston limestone cladding. The remainder of the tower's height is a framed spire of cast iron. The tower is founded on a 15-metre (49 ft) square raft, made of 3-metre (9.8 ft) thick concrete, at a depth of 4 metres (13 ft) below ground level. The four clock dials are 55 metres (180 ft) above ground. The interior volume of the tower is 4,650 cubic metres (164,200 cubic feet).

Despite being one of the world's most famous tourist attractions, the interior of the tower is not open to overseas visitors, though United Kingdom residents are able to arrange tours (well in advance) through their Member of Parliament. However, the tower has no lift, so those escorted must climb the 334 limestone stairs to the top.

Because of changes in ground conditions since construction (notably tunnelling for the Jubilee Line extension), the tower leans slightly to the north-west, by roughly 220 millimetres (8.66 in) at the clock dials, giving an inclination of approximately 1/250. Due to thermal effects it oscillates annually by a few millimetres east and west.
英国伦敦著名古钟或称大本钟(Big Ben),即威斯敏斯特宫报时钟(坐标:51°30′02.2″N, 00°07′28.6″W)英国国会会议厅附属的钟楼,建于1859年。安装在西敏寺桥北议会大厦东侧高95米的钟楼上,钟楼四面的圆形钟盘,直径为6.7米,是伦敦的传统地标。

钟重13.5吨,钟盘直径7米,时针和分针长度分别为2.75米和4.27米,钟摆重305公斤。大本钟是坐落于英国伦敦的国会大厦的北部的一座大钟其钟楼)。大本钟的著名之处在于它的准确和那重达13吨的巨大的用于报时的铜钟。   大本钟是由埃德蒙德·格林斯罗普勋爵设计,并由爱德华·登特及他的儿子弗雷德里克建造的。大本钟在1859年被安装在钟楼上。大本钟是世界上第二大的同时朝向四个方向的时钟。每个钟面的底座上刻着拉丁文的题词,“上帝啊,请保佑我们的女王维多利亚一世的安全。”   作为伦敦市的标志以及英国的象征,大本钟巨大而华丽,重13.5吨,四个钟面的面积有两平方米左右。大本钟从1859年就为伦敦城报时,根据格林尼治时间每隔一小时敲响一次,至今将近一个半世纪,尽管这期间大本钟曾两度裂开而重铸。现在大本钟的钟声仍然清晰、动听。自从1859年投入使用后,英国政府每隔五年就要对大本钟实施维护,包括清洗钟体、替换大本钟的报时轮系和运转轮系等。

至于它名字从何而来,这并不十分明确,但有两个流传较广的说法。

根据一种说法,它是根据19世纪中期伦敦议会大厦重建并安放大钟时监督这项工作的建筑督察官(Commissioner of Works)命名的。这位督察官名叫本杰明·霍尔(Benjamin Hall)个头很大,也许与此相关。

另一种理论则说,它是根据另一位本杰明,当时英国重量级击拳冠军本杰明·考恩特(Benjamin Caunt)而命名的。他当时的外号是“大本”(Big Ben),说当时英国流行这样称呼任何领域内最重量级的人或东西。

这个“本”何以到了中文里演变成了“笨”,却仍有待考证。

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