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高中适用:英语句子成分分析菜鸟自学版(10)

时间:2015-01-09 20:46  作者:admin  来源:未知

 第三节“阴魂不散的骨灰极”两大结构之
 ——with结构与独立主格结构
为什么说是“阴魂不散”主要是说这两大结构在书面英语中你会经常遇到,经常感到难以理解。为什么说是“骨灰级”主要是因为这两大结构已经是简单句最难理解的部分了,如果你能够把这两大结构理解了,你也就是“骨灰级”人物了。
不过,这两大结构也不像我说的那样超恐怖,实际上,要是认真学起来,也不是太难。首先,我们来看with结构:
With 结构本身是由三部分组成:
 with +名词/代词+to do/doing /done /形容词/介词短语等
此句型的关键是第三部分,因为它可以由多种形式来构成,请大家看下面的例句:
1. With so much work to do, he could not go home.
2. With his hands trembling, he sat there.
3. We like to sleep with windows open.
4. He stood there with his hands in his pockets 
5. With the weather changed, we decided to put off the sports meet.
大家试试分析上面的四个句子中with 结构中的第三部分是由什么形式来充当的。
那么,独立主格结构又是什么“东东”呢?这个结构说白了跟with结构基本上是一样的,只不过比with结构少了个with 而已,换句话说,把with结构中的with仍掉就成为独立主格结构了,超简单吧,with结构是由三部分组成,那么独立主格结构就是有两部分组成:
名词/代词+to do/doing /done /形容词/介词短语等
下面的例句:6.Weather permitting ,we’ll go on a picnic tomorrow (如果天气允许,我们明天去野餐)
7.I gave you today three-fourths of the money, the rest to follow within a month.
(今天我把那笔钱的四分之三给你,其余部分下个月内给你。)
 8.The work done, they went home.(工作完了,他们回家了)
 9. He stood at the door, his hands in his pocket..
(他站在门口,双手插在口袋里。)
 10. He was waiting, his face white with anger.
 (他在等待着,脸气得发白。)’
请大家分析一下上面句子中划线部分作为独立主格结构是由什么形式来充当的。With 结构和独立主格结构,大家了解即可,看到这两个结构能把他们辨认出来就可以了。
练习六
分析下面句子中with 结构中的第三部分是由什么形式来充当的。
1. with so much work to do, he could not go home.
 由于有很多的工作要做,他不能回家。动词不定式充当
2.With his hands trembling, he sat there.
他坐在那儿,手在颤抖。动名词充当
3.We like to sleep with windows open.
我们喜欢开着窗户睡觉。形容词
4.He stood there with his hands in his pockets 
 他站在那儿,手插在口袋里。介词短语
5.With the weather changed, we decided to put off the sports meet.过去分词
 由于天气发生了变化,我们决定推迟运动会。
分析下面句子中独立主格结构中的第二部分是由什么形式来充当的
6:Weather permitting ,we’ll go on a picnic tomorrow 
如果天气允许,我们明天去野餐。现在分词充当
7.I gave you today three-fourths of the money, the rest to follow within a month.
今天我把那笔钱的四分之三给你,其余部分下个月内给你。不定式
充当
8.The work done, they went home.
工作干完了,他们回家了。过去分词充当
 9. He stood at the door, his hands in his pocket..
他站在门口,双手插在口袋里。介词短语
 10. He was waiting, his face white with anger.
 他在等待着,脸气得发白。形容词短语 
 第四节 真正的“傀儡”—— It
我们说it是”傀儡”,主要源于it所特有的品质,it 可以作形式宾语和形式主语,这是其他词所不能的,什么是形式主语\形式宾语? 
形式主语,顾名思义,就是形式上的主语,并不是真正的主语,所以我们说它是“傀儡”并不为过。大家看下面的例子: 
I. It is no use writing to her.
 给她写信是没用的。
2. It is no use persuading him not to do this.
 劝说他不干那件事是没有的。
3. It is difficult to understand these sentences.
 理解这些句子是一件困难的事
上面的三个例子中It 就是作的形式主语,真正的主语是后面的动名词短语或者是动词不定式短语。比如第一句:动名词短语writing to her 是作真正的主语,第二句;动名词短语persuading
him not to do this 是真正的主语,第三句:动词不定式短语to understand these sentences 作的真正的主语
形式宾语,顾名思义,形式上的宾语,并不是真正的宾语,大家看下面的例句:
4. I found it difficult to take care of a child.
我发现照看一个小孩子是困难的
5. I think it necessary to learn English.
 我认为学英语很有必要。
上面两个句子中的it 就是作形式宾语,而动词不定式是作真正的宾语。比如第一句中的to take care of a child 就是作真正的宾语,第二句中的to learn English 作真正的宾语。 
关于形式主语和形式宾语,大家了解即可,看到他们要能把他们辨认出来。 
  练习七
 判断下列句子中it 是作形式主语还是形式宾语
1. It is foolish of you to waste money .
2. I find it quite pleasant to talk with you .
3. It is impossible for us to understand him.
4. He made it clear why he didn’t come on time .
5. It is no use trying to explain .
6. She thinks it easy to understand a letter written in English.
7. It’s not very useful to read the whole book.
8. Mike made it clear that he disagreed.
9. Is it possible to go by bike ?
10. He felt it his duty to help her . 
判断下列句子中it 是作形式主语还是形式宾语
1. It is foolish of you to waste money.
你浪费钱,真傻。形式主语
2. I find it quite pleasant to talk with you.
和你说话我感到很高兴。形式宾语
3. It is impossible for us to understand him.
让我们去理解他是不可能的。形式主语
4. He made it clear why he didn’t come on time .
他已经清楚地表达了他为什么没有按时来。形式宾语
5. It is no use trying to explain.
尽力地去解释是没有什么用的。形式主语
6. She thinks it easy to understand a letter written in English.
她认为去理解一封用英文写的信是容易的事。形式宾语
7. It’s not very useful to read the whole book.
读整本书没有多大用处。形式主语
8. Mike made it clear that he disagreed.
迈克明确地表达他不同意。形式宾语
9. Is it possible to go by bike ?
骑自行车去可能吗?形式主语
10. He felt it his duty to help her .
他感觉去帮助她是他的责任。形式宾语 
综合练习一
分析下列句子的句子结构
1. we are working.。
2. I can swim very well.
3. The waiter brought a bottle of beer to me.
4. Why does the wind blow.
5. The rain has been pulling down for a whole day.
6. Both Tom and Jack enjoy country music.
7. Jim asked you to give his best wishes to everyone.
8. You must get the car ready by tomorrow.
9. I have a lot of clothes to wash. 
10. He gave his son some advice on reading.
11. Read me the first paragraph.
12. I’ve ordered some soup for you.
13. He began leaning English ten years ago.
14. My being late worried my teacher.
15. The president himself would visit our school.
16. April fool’Day is the special day of the year
17. He usually takes a nap after lunch.
18. I got it back at once.
19. He finished lunch and went into the garden.
20. The telephone rang.
21. We study hard.
22. His father might have died.
23. Will you leave the door open/ unclosed 
24. Can you make the dog stand still?
25. The landlord had them working day and night.
26. A sound knowledge of grammar is important to good writing.
27. We all breathe, eat, and drink.
28. I woke up at 6:00 in the morning.
29. The book weighs five kilos.
30. They will be flying to London. 

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