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英语语音基础知识

时间:2010-06-16 07:14  作者:  来源:

英语语音基础知识
要想说好英语语音,就要有英语语音的一些基本知识。以下内容供你参考。
1.关于语音的几个概念
1)字母:语言的书写形式。元音字母a, e, i(y), o, u,
2)音标:词的语音形式。
3)音素:音的最小的单位。英语中有48音素。
4)音节:由元音和辅音构成的发音单位。ap'ple, stu'dent, tea'cher, un'der'stand
5)元音:发音响亮,是乐音;口腔中气流不收阻碍;是构成音节的主要音。英语中有20元音。
6)辅音:发音不响亮,是噪音;口腔中气流受到阻碍;不是构成音节的主要音。英语中有28辅音。
7)开音节:a) 辅音+元音+辅音+e name bike   ;b) 辅音+元音 he, go, hi
8)闭音节:a) 辅音+元音+辅音 bad, bed, sit, hot, cup; b)元音+辅音it
9)重读音节:单词中发音特别响亮的音节。
2. 元音:(注意:下面空方括号是电脑无法输入的音标)
1)[i:] sea, he, see, piece, ceiling
2) sit, build, miss, myth  
3)[e] bed, desk, head,  
4)[æ] bad, land, bank, stamp  
5)[a:] car, fast, class, plant, calm, aunt
6)[ɔ] hot, want
7)[ ɔ:] door, more, sport, ball, warm, author, court, bought, caught  
8)[u:] good, who, blue, soup,  
9) look, put, women, could  
10)[Λ] cup, come, blood, rough  
11)[ә:] girl, work, serve, nurse  
12)[ә] cadre, ago, forget, polite, dollar, doctor, famous, Saturday  
13)[ei] cake, they, play, eight, great,  
14)[ai] bike, die, neither, light, try, find, height, eye  
15)[әu] phone, cold, boat, soul, grow  
16)[au] house, town  
17)[ɔi] boy, oil  
18)[iә] dear, idea, deer, here, fierce,  
19)[εә] pear, care, there, fair  
20)[uә] tour, poor,
3. 容易混淆的元音
1)[e] [æ] bed bad; men, man; pen, pan; lend land  
2)[i:] [ei] real rail; greet, great; mean, main; read raid  
3)[e] [ai] bet bite; red write; said side, head, hide  
4)[au] [ɔ:] house horse; loud lord; south sauce; now nor; count corn; cloud clause  
5)[au] [Λ] found fond; gown gone; down don
4. 辅音
1)[p] pen,  
2) bed, comb  
3)[t] tell,  
4)[d], day, played, wanted  
5)[k] cold, sky, quick, school, back, accept, box  
6)[g] big, go, guess, language  
7)[m] man  
8)[n] nine, knife, autumn  
9)[η] bank, uncle, English, sing,  
10)[l] land, world  
11)[r] read, write,  
12)[f] five, cough, laugh  
13)[v] voice, of  
14)[θ] think,  
15)[ ð] this, bathe  
16)[s] sit, miss, science, case, scarf  
17)[z] zoo, close,  
18)[∫] sure, she, social, nation  
19)[/] pleasure,  
20)[h] hot, who, hour  
21)[w] wall, what, answer  
22)[j] yes  
23)[t∫] child, teach, catch  
24)[d/] joke, bridge,  
25)[ts] boats  
26)[dz] goods  
27)[tr] tree  
28)[dr] dream
5. 容易混淆的辅音
1)[v] [w] vet wet; vest west; vine wine; very well  
2)[s] [θ] sink think; sort thought; miss myth; mass math  
3)[z] [ð] closing clothing; breeze breathe; bays bathes  
4)[n] [η] thin thing; sin sing; ban bang win wing; ran rang  
6. 读音规则
1)重读音节(见元音和辅音的例句)
2)非重读音节 [ә] banana, student, today, after,
orange, secret, evening, very, Monday
7. 特殊读音
1)音的连读:not at all, half an hour, I love you and all. after all
2)失去爆破:good girl, good student, good job, expression, school, extreme
3)音的同化:this year, Would you do it? Can't you see it?
8. 重音
1)单词重音
A)双音节词
a)一般在第一个音节重读。letter, sorry
b)有 a-, be-, de-, re-, res-, in-, im-, en-, em-, es-, ex-, con-, com-, dis-, mis-, pre-, per-, pro-, trans- 等前缀的词,第二个音节是重音。
a'bout, be'lieve, ad'dress, de'cide, re'port, con'demn, res'pect, com'pare, in'form, dis'cuss,  
im'press, mis'take, en'force, pre'pare, em'ploy, per'mit, es'cape, pro'duce, ex'claim,trans'late  
c)有 de-, in-, re-, con-, pre-  等前缀的重音与词义和词类有关, 一般名词的重音在第一个音节上,其它的词性在第二个音节上。
'record, re'cord; 'insult, in'sult; 'conduct, con'duct; 'present pre'sent; 'content, con'tent  
d)有些复合词和带有前缀 re-, ex-, un-, pre-, post-, 等的词,有两个重音。
'out'side, 're'tell, 'well-'known, 'un'real, 'fif'teen, 'Chi'nese, 'pre-'war, 'post-'war  
B)多音节词
a)一般倒数第三个音节是重音。'difficult, 'communist, 'family, e'conomy, oppor'tunity,de'mocracy.  
b)有一些双音节词,加了前缀和后缀成了多音节,但这些词按原来词根的重音读音。
'carefully, in'definite, 'comfortable, con'ductor, ac'cording, dis'turbance, 'complicated,es'tablishment,  
c)词尾有-eous, -grahpy, -ial, -ian, -ic, -ics, -ience, ient, -ify, -ion, -ious, -ity, ive 后缀的词,重音在这些后缀的前一个音节上。
cour'teous, cal'ligraphy, edi'torial, his'torian, peri'odic, mathe'matics, ex'perience,suf'ficient, i'dentify, trans'lation, re'ligious, curi'osity, pro'tective  
d)词尾有 -ain, -ee, -eer, -ese, -ette 后缀的词,重音在该后缀上,而且有一个次重音。enter'tain, emplo'yee, mountai'neer, Japa'nese, ciga'rette  
2)句子重音
A) 英语的节奏:(轻)-轻-重-轻-(轻)或重-轻-(轻)(轻)重
B) 英语句子的长短:是由句子中的重读词的数目决定的,而不是象汉语那样由句子中的汉字数目决定的。
C) 实词重读(副词重读),虚词轻读(冠词,单音节介词,单音节连词,人称代词,反代词,物主代词,关系代词,相互代词,助动词,情态动词和系动词be.
D) 实词不重读的特殊情况
a) 实词第二次出现
He thinks of that as a child thinks.  
b) 一个名词被第二个名词修饰
I met her in the railway station.  
c) 代替词
Which book do you want? The small one.  
d) 感叹词中的 what 和how
What a good day it is! How beautiful she is!  
e) street 在专有名词中
Wangfujing Street.
f) this在这些短语中,this morning/afternoon/evening
E)虚词重读的特殊情况
a) 情态动词,助动词和系动词be在句首,句尾和否定时。
Do you like it? Yes, I do. Are you a doctor? Yes, I am. Can you help me? Yes, I can.  
I don't like you. He isn't a worker.  
b) 情态动词表示可能,惊奇和肯定时。
They may come this evening. Can it be five already? He must be in the room.  
c) 介词在句首和句尾。
In the box, he found a letter. He is the person I talked with.  
d) 引导复合句的连词在句首。
If you wish, I'll visit you. When he comes, I'll tell him.  
e)反身代词表示强调。
He couldn't come himself.




 

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