高三短文填空A Question of Judgment Human beings are in principle
时间:2016-12-24 09:52 作者:admin 来源:www.2abc8.com
A Question of Judgment
Human beings are, in principle, poor at considering background information when making individual decisions. At first glance, this might seem like a strength that __41__ people the ability to make judgments which are independent of __42__ factors. But in a world of quotas（配额）and limits—__43___, the world in which most professional people operate—Dr. Simonsohn reported in Psychological Science that it was actually a weakness since an inability to consider the big picture was leading decision-makers to be biased(有偏见）by the daily samples they were working with. For example, he supposed that a judge fearful of appearing too soft on crime might be more likely to send someone to prison ___44___ he had already sentenced five or six other defendants（被告）only to forced community service on that day.
To __45_ this idea, Dr. Simonsohn. and his assistants turned their attention to the university-admissions process. Admissions officers interview hundreds of applicants every year, at a rate of 4% a day, and can offer entry to about 40% of them. In theory, the ___46__ of an applicant should not depend on the few others ___47__ randomly for interview during the same day, but Dr. Simonsohn suspected the truth was otherwise.
He studied the results of 9,323 MBA interviews ___48___ by 31 admissions officers. The interviewers had rated applicants on a scale of one to five. This scale ___49___ numerous factors, including communication skills, personal drive, team-working ability and personal accomplishments, into consideration. The scores from this rating were ___50___ used in conjunction with an applicant's score on the GMAT, a standardized exam which is __51___ out of 800 points, to make a decision on whether to accept him or her.
Dr. Simonsohn found if the score of the previous candidate in a daily series of interviewees was 0.75 points or more higher than that of the one _52_ that, then the score for the next applicant would __53__ by an average of 0.075 points. This might sound small, but to reverse the effects of such a decrease, a candidate would need 30 more GMAT points than would otherwise have been necessary.
As for why people behave this way, Dr. Simonsohn proposes that after accepting a number of strong candidates, interviewers might form the illogical expectation that a __54__ candidate “is due”. Regardless of the reason, if this sort of thinking proves to have a similar effect on the judgments of those in other fields, such as law and medicine, it could be responsible for far worse things than the __55__ of qualified business-school candidates.
41. A. grants B. equips C. denies D. delivers
42. A. minor B. external C. crucial D. objective
43. A. above all B. not to mention C. on the whole D. in other words
44. A. if B. until C. though D. unless
45. A. test B. emphasize C. share D. promote
46. A. decision B. quality C. status D. success
47. A. found
A B. studied C. chosen D. identified
48. A. inspired B. expressed C. conducted D. secured
49. A. put B. got C. took D. gave
50. A. instead B. then C. ever D. rather
51. A. selected B. passed C. marked D. introduced
52. A. below B. after C. above D. before
53. A. jump B. float C. flow D. drop
54. A. stronger B. weaker C. better D. worse
55. A. rejection B. reception C. reputation D. recreation
答案 ABDAA DCCCB CDDBA
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