高三Summary Writing Are we born with a preference for certain
时间:2016-12-24 14:16 作者:admin 来源:www.2abc8.com
Are we born with a preference for certain kinds of faces? Or is it just something that people learn, without realizing it? To find out, psychologist Judith Langlois and her team at the University of Texas in Austin worked with young children and babies.
The researchers showed each baby photos of two faces. One face was more attractive than the other. The scientists then recorded how long the infants looked at each face.
Babies spent longer viewing the attractive faces than the unattractive ones. That meant they preferred the pretty faces. These findings suggest that people prefer pretty faces very early in life. However, it’s still possible that we learn that preference. After all, Schein, who worked with Judith, points out, “By the time we test infants, they already have experience with faces.”
That experience can make a difference. Research conducted at the University of Delaware found that babies’ brains are better at processing faces from their own race. So infants quickly come to prefer these faces, Schein says.
It’s well-known in psychology that familiar things are more attractive, says Coren Apicella. She is a psychologist at the University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia. “Perhaps average faces are more attractive because they seem more familiar.”
Indeed, her research backs this up. Apicella and Little worked with two groups of young adults: British and Hadza. The Hadza are hunter-gatherers in Tanzania, a nation in East Africa. Apicella chose them for her experiment because they had not been exposed to Western culture and standards of beauty.
She showed people from both groups two images and asked which was more attractive. One image was an average of five British faces or five Hadza faces. The other was an average of 20 British faces or 20 Hadza faces. People of both cultures preferred the face that was more average —that is, compiled from 20 faces instead of five. The British participants found both Hadza and British faces beautiful. The Hadza, in contrast, preferred only Hadza faces.
“The Hadza have little experience with European faces and probably do not know what an average European face looks like,” Apicella concludes. “If they don't know what it looks like, how can they prefer it?”
Her findings show how biology and the environment work together to shape our values. “The preference for average itself is biologically based,” Apicella says. But people must first experience other faces to learn what an average face should look like.
Babies’ preference to attractive faces indicates that people begin to prefer pretty faces at an early age. Researches also show that average faces are more attractive because they are more familiar to people. Meanwhile, people’s experience with faces matters a lot. The more people experience with certain faces, the more preference they will have to the average of these faces.