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高三阅读理解Like many other people who speak more

时间:2019-04-14 19:22  作者:Edmond  来源:www.2abc8.com

 Like many other people who speak more than one language, I often have the sense that I’m a slightly different person in each of my languages—more confident in English, more relaxed in French, more emotional in Czech. Is it possible that, along with these differences, my moral compass (指南针) also points in somewhat different directions depending on the language I’m using at the time?
Psychologists who study moral judgments have become very interested in this question. The findings of several recent studies suggest that when people are faced with moral dilemmas (困境), they do indeed respond differently when considering them in a foreign language than when using their native tongue.
In a 2014 paper led by Albert Costa, volunteers were presented with a moral dilemma known as the “trolley problem”: imagine that a runaway trolley is moving quickly toward a group of five people standing on the tracks, unable to move. You are next to a switch that can move the trolley to a different set of tracks, therefore sparing the five people, but resulting in the death of one who is standing on the side tracks. Do you pull the switch?
Most people agree that they would. But what if the only way to stop the trolley is by pushing a large stranger off a footbridge into its path? People tend to be very hesitant to say they would do this, even though in both situations, one person is sacrificed to save five. But Costa and his colleagues found that presenting the dilemma in a language that volunteers had learned as a foreign tongue dramatically increased their stated willingness to push the sacrificial person off the footbridge, from fewer than 20% of respondents working in their native language to about 50% of those using the foreign one.
Why does it matter whether we judge morality in our native language or a foreign one? According to one explanation, such judgments involve two separate and competing ways of thinking—one of these, a quick, natural “feeling,” and the other, careful deliberation about the greatest good for the greatest number. When we use a foreign language, we unconsciously sink into the more careful way simply because the effort of operating in our non-native language signals our cognitive (认知的) system to prepare for difficult activity.
An alternative explanation is that differences arise between native and foreign tongues because our childhood languages are filled with greater emotions than are those learned in more academic settings. As a result, moral judgments made in a foreign language are less filled with the emotional reactions that surface when we use a language learned in childhood.
There’s strong evidence that memory connects a language with the experiences and interactions through which that language was learned. For example, people who are bilingual (双语的) are more likely to recall an experience if reminded in the language in which that event occurred. Our childhood languages, learned in the middle of passionate emotion, become filled with deep feeling. By comparison, languages acquired late in life, especially if they are learned through limited interactions in the classroom or dully delivered over computer screens and headphones, enter our minds lacking the emotionality that is present for their native speakers.

38. What does “this question” in Paragraph 2 refer to?
A. What contributes to one’s language improvements?
B. Is it necessary to learn more than one foreign language?
C. Does the language one uses influence one’s moral judgments?
D. How do people deal with moral dilemmas in a foreign language?
39. When the “trolley problem” was presented in a foreign language, volunteers were more likely to ______.
A. care less about the five people
B. pull the switch to the side tracks
C. remain hesitant about what to do
D. sacrifice the stranger on the footbridge
40. The underlined word in Paragraph 5 is closest in meaning to ______. 
A. consideration   B. guidance  C. selection  D. arrangement
41.What can we learn from the last two paragraphs?
A. Bilingual people are less emotional than others. 
B. Native language learning involves greater emotions.
C. Childhood memories limit foreign language learning.
D. Academic settings promote foreign language learning.

答案 38.C   39.D   40.A
41.B 

TAG标签阅读理解 高三